Six Types of Training and Development Methods
1.On-the-job Training and Lectures
The 2 most incessantly used kinds of training are on-the-job training and lectures, although little research exists as to the effectiveness of either. It's often not possible to show somebody everything she needs to know at a location away from the workplace. Thus on-the-job training usually supplements other kinds of training, e.g., classroom or off-site training; but on-the-job training is frequently the only form of training. It is usually informal, which means, unfortunately, that the trainer does not concentrate on the training as much as she should, and the trainer might not have a well-articulated picture of what the novice must learn.
On-the-job training is just not successful when used to keep away from growing a training program, though it can be an effective a part of a well-coordinated training program.
Lectures are used because of their low cost and their capacity to reach many people. Lectures, which use one-way communication versus interactive learning methods, are much criticized as a training device.
2. Programmed Instruction (PI)
These devices systematically current information to the learner and elicit a response; they use reinforcement principles to promote appropriate responses. When PI was initially developed in the Nineteen Fifties, it was thought to be useful only for basic subjects. Right now the tactic is used for skills as diverse as air site visitors control, blueprint reading, and the evaluation of tax returns.
3. Computer-Assisted Instruction (CAI)
With CAI, students can study at their own pace, as with PI. Because the student interacts with the computer, it is believed by many to be a more dynamic learning device. Academic alternate options could be quickly chosen to suit the student's capabilities, and performance could be monitored continuously. As instruction proceeds, data are gathered for monitoring and improving performance.
4. Audiovisual Methods
Each television and film extend the range of skills that may be taught and the way data may be presented. Many systems have electronic blackboards and slide projection equipment. The usage of methods that combine audiovisual systems resembling closed circuit television and telephones has spawned a new term for this type of training, teletraining. The function on " Sesame Street " illustrates the design and evaluation of certainly one of television's favorite children's program as a training device.
Training simulations replicate the essential characteristics of the real world which can be necessary to produce each learning and the transfer of new knowledge and skills to application settings. Both machine and other types of simulators exist. Machine simulators usually have substantial degrees of. physical fidelity; that is, they represent the real world's operational equipment. The principle goal of simulation, nonetheless, is to produce psychological fidelity, that is, to reproduce in the training these processes that might be required on the job. We simulate for a number of reasons, including to manage the training environment, for safety, to introduce feedback and other learning ideas, and to reduce cost.
6. Enterprise games
They're the direct progeny of war games that have been used to train officers in fight methods for hundreds of years. Nearly all early business games have been designed to show basic enterprise skills, however more latest games also include interpersonal skills. Monopoly could be considered the quintessential enterprise game for young capitalists. It's probably the first place kids realized the words mortgage, taxes, and go to jail.
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